Tag Archives: bitcoin

IRS Hell for BitCoin Users

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Summary

2018 is the first year U.S. citizens have to file taxes on their cryptocurrency activities for 2017.  The limited “rules” the IRS has published do not cover the majority of types of activities and the information needed to accurately file taxes is simply not available to non programmers and is excruciatingly difficult to acquire, even for programmers.

Tax “Guidance”

In 2014, the IRS published a somewhat vague guidance on how to report cryptocurrency taxes.  It essentially boils down to:

  1. How much did you buy? 
  2. How much did you sell?
  3. What’s the difference?
  4. Send in 30% of your profits.
  5. Determine fair market value on the day of your transactions.

Here’s the actual 2014 IRS tax guidance document.

Reality

Unfortunately, reality is much more complicated than that.  Here are the real-world things that we have no clear rules on:

  1. What if I bought some prior to 2017?
  2. When I sell some, which of the MANY prior purchasing transactions do I apply the price to?  The price is different for every transaction.
  3. What about mining?
  4. What about mining hardware prices?
  5. What about price of electricity?
  6. I bought & sold on more than one exchange.
  7. I moved crypto between exchanges.
  8. I converted crypto from one to another.
  9. Prices at the moment of each transaction are not available when converting between currencies.
  10. Which price would we use, even if we had it?  There’s no universal price on any crypto.  Each exchange has its own, moving price that changes by the second.
  11. What about when a cryptocurrency forks, like BitCoin to BitCoinCASH and BitCoinGold?
  12. They say to use the fair market value of the day to determine prices on transactions, but that’s of no use since the price can swing thousands of dollars within a day.

My Experience

Since 2014, I’ve bought and sold crypto hundreds of times.  On some days, I’ve made dozens of trades in a single day.  In addition to that, I have accounts on 4 exchanges and also mine Ethereum.  I also traded between cryptos like converting BitCoin to LiteCoin and LiteCoin to Ethereum & Ripple & IOTA, etc., and moved crypto between exchanges like CoinBase, Kraken, Bitfinex, & Bittrex, and to and from my personal wallets,  and gained some crypto during forks, and lost some due to CoinBase not giving me my Ethereum Classic.

Over the past week, I’ve spent about 6-10 hours or so JUST on trying to gather what I understood would be needed for my tax accountant for cryptocurrency (not counting my usual taxes).  From the list above, you’ll get a rough idea of what I was going through to try to collect the information.

It’s 2018-03-31 and I finally finished my taxes.  Here’s how the day went:

I was woken up around 9:45 am this morning (I like to sleep late on Saturdays) by my tax accountant.  We spent a SOLID FIVE HOURS on the phone, trying to resolve everything (95% of that was related to cryptocurrencies).  This is their first year dealing with this.  I had to explain a lot about crypto and even the IRS’s rules.  She, apparently, had the same, uninformative PDF document from 2014 from the IRS too and just assumed it’d be as simple as they explain.  Reality is hugely different.

She wanted me to make it simple for her.  I wanted her to make it simple for ME.  That’s kind of why I’m paying her, right?  I spent hours gathering everything she could possibly need (minus the information that was just not feasible to get, but that we actually DO need).

It was simply not enough information, not just the lack of data that I didn’t have access to, but the lack of rules from the IRS.

Conclusion

The amount of effort trying to figure out just HOW to report my cryptocurrency transactions to the IRS was a nightmare and equals about the same amount of effort I spent throughout the year transacting and buying, learning, and setting up my Ethereum mining.  And it was significantly more frustrating than the actual crypto activities.

The IRS needs to get their act together, learn what it is we actually do, and come up with REALISTIC rules that we can actually perform.

After all the time and effort I spent preparing my taxes for my accounted, PLUS the amount of time we spent on the phone afterwords was insane and we STILL didn’t get everything.  We probably got about 85% of what was needed and I guarantee that what we reported was not right, but that was the best we could do.  I had tens of thousands of dollars in transactions.  With the limited information we had, she simply ended up using what I sent to her from the website CoinTracking.com, which is ONLY good for a SINGLE exchange.  So, I reported a $200 profit and paid taxes on that.  At least that is small, to keep my taxes down AND shows a “profit”, which should keep the IRS off my back, since I’m actually paying them something.  I was told that if I reported a loss, it would likely trigger an audit.

What?  Were you hoping to come here for a resolution to YOUR tax problems?  Sorry.  All I can offer is comfort that you’re not alone.  The IRS needs to get their act together and YOU need to click this link to contact your U.S. representative and explain to them the nightmare they’ve created for us.  Click the following link:

Find Your Representative

 

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Validating Digital PGP Signatures & Why it’s Important

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Do you ever see the checksums, CRCs, SHA, or PGP signatures presented to you when you’re downloading a file?  Like this for example:

These are actually SUPER IMPORTANT!

What are those signatures?

They are, in a very very simplistic explanation, answers to a math function where the numbers given to the function are the bytes of the file you want to download.

Why are they important?

They are used to prove to you that the file you’re downloading hasn’t been tampered with.   HOW? you may ask?   Because only the valid, original file, with the original set of bytes in it could have produced that signature.  If you change just ONE byte in the entire file, no matter how big the file is, you’d get a DIFFERENT answer to the math function.

This is CRUCIALLY important for things like cryptocurrency wallets for cryptocurrencies like #BitCoin, #Ethereum, #LiteCoin, etc…  Hackers frequently publish TAMPERED versions of wallet software and if you install and run the hacker’s version, they’re going to steal ALL OF YOUR CRYPTO!  This has already happened many times.  Websites are compromised and hacked versions are put on their websites.

This brings up another important concept of signatures vs. the files they’re supposedly coming from:

A published signature is absolutely USELESS if it’s on the SAME website as the download file.  Why?  Because if a hacker compromises the download site, then you can’t trust anything on that site, including the signature.  You’ll find that MOST sites that publish a signature do so on one website, but the downloaded file is hosted on another website.  For BOTH the signature AND the file to be compromised by the same hacker, they’d have to hack BOTH of those websites, which is much more difficult.

How can I validate them?

You’ll need software on your computer that can compute the same types of signatures that the website publishes for their downloaded files.  In short, these are the steps (I’ll go into explicit detail shortly):

  1. Install some signature making and validating software onto your computer (Do this only once).
  2. Make note of the published signature for the file you’re about to download. (Do this for every download that offers it).
  3. Download the file (DO NOT EXECUTE IT!  It’s NOT trusted until you validate the signature!)
  4. Use the signature software to make or verify the signature of the downloaded file.
  5. If the signature checks out, the file is safe.  If it doesn’t, DELETE THE FILE!  DO NOT EXECUTE IT!

Detailed VALIDATION instructions:

Before you get overwhelmed, scroll to the bottom and see that once you’ve done all this once, future validations are really simple…. Just those 4 steps at the bottom.  But for now, you’ll need to go through this more lengthy setup process.

In this tutorial, we’ll be dealing with a downloadable executable file that offers a public PGP signature for you to validate against.  You should know that there are many forms of signatures that an author could choose to publish.  Other than PGP, there are SHA1, SHA256, SHA512, MD5 (which has been broken), and several others.  These are the most popular ones.

We’ll be downloading and validating a popular BitCoin wallet app.  For this type of app, it’s critical to validate the downloaded file against the published signature.

Yes!  This looks very involved, but the good news is that most of these steps are only needed to be done ONCE EVER.  Since this is your first time, there are many steps to get new things installed and set up right.  Subsequent verification will be much simpler and I’ll provide a list of steps to do after you have everything set up.

First, install some PGP key software on your computer.

  1. Install gpg4win from here: https://gpg4win.org/
    1. It will install a few utilities and a GUI app that will hold all of your PGP keys and certificates. (You don’t need to understand what those are at this point).
  2. Skip this step if you already have a public/private PGP key pair.  Create public/private keys for your own e-mail address.  You’ll need this later and it has other benefits such as being able to send and receive encrypted e-mail on any e-mail system.  See: STICK IT TO THE NSA: HOW TO ENCRYPT YOUR WEBMAIL
    1. Open the “File” menu and choose “New Key Pair”.
    2. On the box that opens, choose “Create a personal OpenPGP key pair”.
    3. Enter your name and e-mail address, then click “Advanced Settings…” and on the top 2 drop downs, change it to 4096 bits.  That’ll make your key orders of magnitude stronger.  If you want, feel free to check “Authentication” and “Valid until” and pick a date.  I recommend 1 year into the future.  If you choose a date, your key will not be trusted by anyone after that day.
    4. Click [OK], then [Next], then [Create].
    5. It’ll prompt you for a password.  To use your private key, you’ll need this password, so DO NOT LOSE IT!!!!!  Go ahead and enter it.
    6. After taking a few moments (and it WILL take a few moments), you’ll have a key pair.  If you want others to be able to send you encrypted data, I recommend clicking the button “Upload Public Key To Directory Service…”.  People will be able to look up your public key via your name or e-mail address.  But, it’s not needed for validating signatures, which is the primary purpose of this article.  Now, click [Finish].
    7. You’ll now have a new, certified key in your key ring.  PROTECT YOUR PRIVATE KEY WITH YOUR LIFE!!!!

If you’re interested in more details about what they private/public key pair is that you created, please see.  It’s not necessary to know all of that for this article, but it will clear up some confusion, if you have any.

Now, let’s do an actual Verification!

  1. Go to https://electrum.org/#download and view that page.  (Note, if you have the know-how and the means to download and build from the source code, ALWAYS do that rather than downloading a pre-built executable!)  Notice the signature links next to every download option?  THAT’S what we’re working with in this article.
  2. Click the Windows Installer and download it.  DO NOT RUN IT!  In the folder in which you downloaded the file, you’ll see a file named something like electrum-3.1.0-setup.exe.  As you can see, I’ve downloaded prior versions of the file too.  Notice that some of the files DON’T have “.exe” at the end?  We’ll fix that shortly.
  3. Back on the web page, click the signature next to “Windows Installer”.  You’ll see something that looks like this in your browser:
    1. -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
      
      iQIcBAABCgAGBQJanWcrAAoJECvVgkt/lHDm/a8P/iyHkc+2zkaL2JpbhBMEnPE3
      qf21G0xOmkq9x9bfnKhCT1WYbpJrkjbeSCUSlfENbpjpud+ANCDNLA16n4T9eVPL
      0VrrejOTtH37OwJUI35v5asqmT6N4XcuokY+D2f0uSjd4Pnh+SQP9D5NAk0/1DeH
      WgtEfTKYfiPHzl6NJ3XcVjdMNl2H536OwFZx0x4u0nsdFoAvZgHIA/rrSWxMkN+C
      AbMtTd0pGqPYo5gJnHaoYkxbDIvq/CXRgaHFp0arPaKkYSwqkG/Q7KC1z1zbFLcq
      gD2z9tkj3toBzyCUNrmbmmGd491T6XbZujtiFYbjNhyMBjuBBR4V1sae/mzXoFDb
      LW3wwl8OsrnQlFfSN/NbqEFPSUIbFl5rFpK/LgV3YId7kbujXukKxfTHDce2OsjP
      U7a8QrUm7C3MTz4zAlgWWDwN3rioEzlfebe1qCQxI4hAu7vglOE+cW3UKJVh7zyM
      J21KKKzIO1EZz91t8EfHYrJMWL7Yl3/orgDOEjM2t1IAEm5znAzO0uBujBykgLXV
      A0mF3CP1/Vt+Wosc1aRn7+rzMH1nPpOiEoXYDALASc1mXnNA4oS3/vK9BtzJtZJm
      1jG/Zc+ubB7ybUjKP6e9Z0O8eGX2sWdaqPZCXm2ZNpRidPV6S0Y4mVuoPWb1CIg2
      wJlzoxNsCRk4Ox7qOv6e
      =cof+
      -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----
  4. Click anywhere on the text and hit [Ctrl]+[A] to select all of that text, then [Ctrl]+[C] to copy it.  Or you can select all the text with your mouse and copy it.  You’ll be pasting it into a text file shortly.
    1. DO NOT COPY THE PGP SIGNATURE FROM MY ARTICLE TEXT!!!
  5. Open the folder to where you downloaded the Windows Installer file.  It should be named something like electrum-3.1.0-setup.exe.  Obviously, if you’re reading this in the future, there will likely be a newer version.  This is the latest version at the time of this writing.
    1. Right-click on any empty, white space in the folder and choose “New”, then “Text Document”.  A new, empty text file will be created.  Ignore the extra menu items I have.  I’m a developer and have extra features installed that you might not.
  6. Now hit enter to open the empty text file and paste the PGP key into it (from step 3.1 above, you should have the text in your copy buffer (or “clipboard”) still).  Hit [Ctrl]+[V].  This will paste the text you already had copied from 3.1 above into the text file.  Now hit [Ctrl]+[S] to save it.  And finally CLOSE notepad (or whatever text editor you’re using).
  7. Now rename the text file to exactly the same name as the downloaded electrum exe file, but with “.pgp” added to the end of the filename.  In my case, I rename the text file to electrum-3.1.0-setup.exe.pgp
  8. Now, let’s fix that problem where the file types (also called “file extensions”) are hidden.  While looking at the filename that you downloaded in Windows Explorer, open the “View” menu or tab.  On the right hand side (you might have to resize the window to something bigger to see it), open the “Options” drop down and choose “Change folder and search options”.
  9. On the “Folder Options” that opens up, click on the “View” tab and check OFF (or UN-check) the box “Hide extensions for known file types”, then click “OK”.  It should NOT have a check-mark in it.
    1. You’ll see the files changed from this…
    2. to this…  (again, these are MY files, you may have more or fewer and certainly different files in your downloads folder).
      1. It’s VERY important that you see the FULL filenames.  Before this, the electrum-3.1.0-setup.exe.pgp file looked like it it was named electrum-3.1.0-setup.exe and as you can see, there’s actually ANOTHER file that actually has that name.  Why Microsoft hides these by default is beyond me.   All it does is create confusion is severely increases the risk of hackers tricking you into launching a malicious program when you think you’re opening a safe text file or a picture file.
  10. LET’S DO IT! Let’s make an attempt to actually verify the PGP signature of the file.  Spoiler alert:  It won’t work, but that’s OK.  It will walk us through what we need to do.  Right click your newly created and renamed file that you added “.pgp” to the end of the filename on.  In my example, it will be electrum-3.1.0-setup.exe.pgp , and then choose “More GpgEX options”, then “Verify”.
  11. The verification process will complete as verified, but not fully verified…
    1. Here’s what’s going on.  The EXE file DID verify against the PGP signature, but the signature, itself, is not known to be trusted.  At least, your verification software you’re using (called Kleopatra) does not know the signature to be from a trustworthy source.  You’ll have to TELL IT that you trust that author’s key.  Once you do that, Kleopatra will fully verify everything produced from that author, signed with his same keys.  Click the “Search” button.  This will search on several public PGP key stores on the internet for one that contains that PGP key you have from that author.
      1. It SHOULD find a key from ThomasV@gmx.de after a minute or so…
      2. Click his e-mail address and then click the “Import” button.  That will import his public PGP key into your PGP keyring.  This will make it available for future use by you to validate new versions of this app and others from the same author.  You won’t have to go through all of these steps again for future downloads from him.
  12. Now we need to CERTIFY his signature.  This simply means we’re going to tell our local install of Kleopatra that we TRUST the key from ThomasV.  Open your start menu and find Kleopatra and launch it.
    1. It will show you all the public and private PGP keys you have installed.  Here’s what MINE looks like.  Yours may have only the one key from ThomasV and your own key.  (I’ve blurred my personal keys).
  13. Now, we’ll certify ThomasV’s key.  Right click his key (anywhere on the line with his e-mail address in it) and choose “Certify…”
  14. Check ALL the boxes on the “Certify Certificate” dialog box that pops up, then click “Next”.
  15. Now you need to tell it which of YOUR keys you want to certify it with.  It should show you all your keys that you already installed for yourself.  Select the one you wish to use to validate.  It’s not critical which one you choose, but I recommend choosing the latest one of yours that’s not expired and is associated with your most used e-mail address.  And select “Certify only for myself”, then click “Certify”.  (I’ve blurred all my personal signatures).
    1. You’ll see the following once Kleopatra has marked his certificate as validated by your own key.  We do this to make the software validation work.  Most of these steps are a one-time deal.  You will not repeat all of these every time you want to validate a signature on software.
      1. Click [Finish] and you’ll see your list of installed keys and see that his key is now marked as “certified”.  This is good.  This will REDUCE the number of steps to validate software from him in the future.
  16. Now, one more time, let’s right-click the electrum-3.1.0-setup.exe.pgp file you created, choose “More GpgEX options”, then “Verify”.  This time, you’ll get FULL VERIFICATION!

Congratulations!  You’ve now validated that the Electrum BitCoin wallet software is safe, unmodified, and from the original author.  It is safe to install.  Please note, this was NOT an article about installing the Electrum BitCoin software.  It was an example of how to validate software signatures from ANY software you download (as long as the author provides you validation signatures).  We could have used countless other apps to do the same thing.

It’s MUCH easier the second time!

Yes, I know.  That was quite a lot of work to do.  But that’s only because you’re new to this AND you had to install, configure, and create lots of new things.  Now that you’ve done it once, doing it again will be much less effort.

From now on, all you do is the following:

  1. Get the PGP signature of the file you want to download and save it into a text file.
  2. Download the file you want.
  3. Rename your PGP signature file to exactly the same name as the file you download, but with “.pgp” appended to the end of the file name.
  4. Right-click that pgp file, choose “More GpgEX options” -> “Verify”, and it’ll either validate or report that it’s not valid.

That’s it!  And getting newer versions of the app will be the same 4 steps.

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How I Protect Myself Against Ransomware

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Ransomware

What is RansomWare?

Ransomware is probably the worst kind of malware you can get infected with.  After it gets into your system, it secretly encrypts all your disk drives in the background.  Once it’s done, it notifies you that all your files are encrypted and locked and demands an exorbitant amount of money to be transferred to the thieves (usually via BitCoin) in order to receive the decryption key and sometimes they take your money and never give you the key.  The longer you wait, the higher the ransom, until after about 3 days, they delete your key and your files are gone forever.

Things that do NOT work:

  • Encrypting your hard drive.  While it’s good practice to encrypt your hard drive, this does absolutely NOTHING to protect against Ransomware.  It may protect you from external people snooping your data, but if ransomware gets installed on your machine, it has access to your drive while it’s unencrypted, and can then encrypt it with its own keys.
  • Backups created using the same PC.  Why would having a backup NOT work against ransomware?  Because again, the ransomware can see and write to your backup drive if it’s accessible from your same PC and it will encrypt that too!

How I’m protecting myself against Ransomware

  • I have 2 drives on my main PC:  A boot drive that contains Windows and the installed applications, and an external, high capacity hard drive where ALL my data goes, INCLUDING my Windows Desktop, and all the special windows folders like desktop, documents, pictures, videos, downloads, etc…
  • My boot drive and my external drive are both encrypted (not really a help against Ransomware… just thought I’d mention that they’re encrypted).
  • I have a second drive of equal capacity as my data drive and it’s hooked up to an older Linux laptop.
  • On host, Windows PC, I created a user account named “Backup” (could be named anything) with read only access to my main data drive on my Windows PC.
  • On Linux, I used Veracrypt to encrypt my backup drive that’s connected to it (doesn’t really help against Ransomware, but again, just thought I’d mention it.)
  • Running a scheduled backup program on the Linux laptop (Lucky-backup… a GUI for rsync), connecting to my Windows PC over the network with the Windows “Backup” user account. It backs up all of my Windows external data drive to the Linux, encrypted backup drive and runs a differential backup every night.
  • Critically, the Windows PC has no direct access to the Linux backup drive.
  • My Linux laptop boots off a Linux flash thumb drive and does NOTHING but backup.

How does this protect me?

By using 2 different PC’s, the chances of BOTH of them being infected with ransomware at the same time is very small. By using 2 different operating systems, the chances of both being infected at the same time is drastically reduced.  While Linux is NOT virus free and is NOT ransomware free, it’s significantly more resilient and will NOT be infected by a Windows ransomware infection.  If, by chance, the Linux machine gets infected with Ransomware, it has only read only access to my data drive on my Windows PC and will not be able to encrypt it.  In either case, I have my full data on the other machine.

What happens if my Windows machine gets Ransomware?

I’ll reformat all of my Windows drives by booting off a clean flash thumb drive that has Windows installation media.  Then I’ll have to manually re-install my software, which will be a pain, but I have access to all of it.  Then I’ll need to restore my data to my data drive from my clean Linux backup.

What happens if my Linux machine gets Ransomware?

I’ll reformat all my Linux drives by booting off a clean flash thumb drive and then re-set up my backup system.  My Windows machine at that time should be clean.

Why doesn’t Encrypting my drives help me?

Encrypting your drives DOES  help protect you against adversaries trying to gain access to your data, but it does NOT help protect you against ransomware, which simply wants to DESTROY your data.  The reason is because ransomware runs after you’ve booted into Windows and Windows has decrypted access to your encrypted drives.  That means the ransomware has access to your encrypted drives too and can simply double-encrypt your data.

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Is BitCoin Legitimate?

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(Image credit coindesk.com)

It’s time to correct some misunderstandings about BitCoin.

I was interested in BitCoin and read about it, but one can only learn so much without actual experience, so I dove in and bought some BitCoin, did some mining, gave some BitCoin to my kids, and bought and sold BitCoin over the last year.

What I learned

  1. It’s absolutely, positively not a pyramid scheme. I know pyramid schemes. Pyramid schemes were a friend of mine, and you, BitCoin, are no pyramid scheme.
  2. BitCoin is not centrally located, is user supported, and cannot be shutdown by this or any other government, similar to Tor or bittorrent.
  3. It’s draw is that it is NOT controlled by a central authority like a government or Google.
  4. Everything costs money. Transactions have to be processed and that costs money, but BitCoin transactions are crazy cheap.
  5. 100% of every BitCoin transaction that’s ever taken place has been tracked and is a permanent part of the BitCoin block chain.
  6. Just as cash is not taxed, neither is BitCoin. But BitCoin purchases are no different than cash purchases. They are taxed unless the buyer and the seller agree to not report the transaction. But, the buyer usually has a tax incentive to report the purchase for income tax reasons. Same as cash.
  7. BitCoin is not a tax free paradise.
  8. BitCoin is not an illegal transaction paradise. Cash has no circulation ledger history. BitCoin has a complete and total transaction ledger and history.
  9. Illegal transactions happen in all markets, in all countries, in all currencies, including BitCoin, but only BitCoin has a complete and total history of every single transaction.

Responding to claims that it’s a pyramid scheme, anonymous, you don’t know who promotes it  nor how much BitCoin they have, and that BitCoin has no value, and that only scammers, drug dealers, and hackers use it…

A pyramid scheme works with or without anonymity. As such, anonymity is not a requirement for a pyramid scheme.
A pyramid scheme is when a smaller number of people at the top of the  scheme make money only as larger numbers of newer recruits pay in. Drawing this relationship and hierarchy on paper looks like a triangle, hence the term “pyramid”.  And since the only way people get paid in a pyramid scheme is by larger numbers of recruits, mathematically, that scheme is doomed to failure because after only a couple dozen recruit layers pass, the new numbers needed to keep it going become larger than the human population. That is not BitCoin.

A single BitCoin is an answer to an extremely complicated mathematical formula that takes an ordinary home PC more than a year to compute at full CPU speed. As such, they cannot be counterfeited.

There will only ever be 22 million BitCoins in existence. Their value is on their limited numbers and work involved to be mined.

Promoters of BitCoin are not anonymous. The creator is, but that has no bearing on the existing, known community that supports it. Coinbase, CoinDesk, etc are not anonymous entities.

Everyone that buys BitCoin usually buys it from a known entity, such as the ones I listed above. But what’s cool about BitCoin, is that you CAN buy BitCoin from some anonymous entity SAFELY. That’s the beauty of it. The worldwide BitCoin network validates the BitCoin you’re purchasing is valid, has not been already spent, and that it has successfully been transferred into your wallet. You can safely buy BitCoin in a back alley, with cash, in a foreign land, at night, while naked, if you prefer. 🙂

No one needs to know how much BitCoin the person or entity you’re transacting with has. But, if you want to know, that’s public knowledge too. It’s all in the public, permanent BlockChain. All you need to know is their wallet address. You see 100% of every transaction on that wallet. And to do any transaction, you do need to know that wallet address. So it’s all out in the open.

BitCoin, like fiat currency has no intrinsic value. Both currencies have value in them as their users see fit. Since BitCoin sells for real money by real people in a real society, by definition, society has indeed placed a value on BitCoin. At the moment, that’s $402.38.

Scammers, drug dealers and hackers are and have been using cash too. That has no bearing on the fact that we can and do legitimately use cash, just as we legitimately use BitCoin.

The EU court, just the other day, officially ruled BitCoin as a currency. Big credit cards are getting into it. More and more major retailers are accepting it like Amazon gift cards and http://overstock.com.

What can I buy with BitCoin?

It’s real, has value, is safe, is 100% recorded in the BlockChain.
I hope this has provided you with useful information.

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What is Bitcoin?

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Production Of Bitcoins By Mike Caldwell of Casascius

BitCoin, also known as a “Cryptocurrency” is not as complex to understand as one might think.  To understand BitCoin, let’s first review what “real” money is (or what it’s supposed to be):

In the United States, “Real” money is paper and coins, manufactured by the Federal Reserve.  It has no real value on it’s own.  It’s a low cost representation of gold.  At least, that’s what it used to be.  When it’s backed by a real world and limited resources that can’t be duplicated, it can represent real value because the item behind the money (the gold) is rare, limited, and can’t be duplicated.  Instead of exchanging actual gold for goods and services, we exchange the paper and coin representations of that gold.

So, what about BitCoin?

Now, think of this:  You have a set of incredibly complex mathematical formulas that you want to calculate the answers to.  The problem is that it takes a high speed computer days (or more) of crunching numbers 24/7 before it can find an answer to just ONE of those formulas.  That’s what a BitCoin is!  It’s an answer to one of those complex numbers.  You can’t duplicate it.  You can’t fake it.  You have to mine it, just like you have to mine gold.  But instead of picks and axes, you use CPUs.  It’s still a LOT of work to “find” the “nuggets” of answers.  Additionally, there are a limited number of answers… about 21 million.  So, once the last one is mined, that’s it.  No more manufacturing of more BitCoins.

Now, as you know, gold is represented by paper and low cost metal coins.  How is BitCoin represented?  Well, it’s NOT represented with tangible things you can hold in your hand.  It’s just numbers… the numbers that represent the answers to the formulas.  You CAN print them out on paper and store them under  your mattress, if you like, so in a way, you CAN make paper representations of it.  But, you CANNOT counterfeit it.  When you buy something with BitCoin, you don’t just hand someone a printed piece of paper with a bunch of numbers on it.  I mean, you COULD, but that, by itself, won’t fly.  You give them the numbers (either electronically or on paper) and they then run the numbers through one of many transaction processors (actually, I think it goes through many).  The processors are servers run by many people around the world.  They VALIDATE that those numbers are, in fact, an actual BitCoin… an actual answer to one of the 21 million formulas.  Once validated, the person you’re buying form can accept it, then give you the goods or services you’re wanting to buy.

In short:

A BitCoin is a limited and non counterfeit-able asset, just like gold.  But instead of a tangible asset, it’s an answer to a complex math problem.  Your “money” in BitCoin is usually kept in digital form and is validated on each transaction as being real.

What is your use of BitCoin?

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